Awarded to Pauling for his overall work on the chemical bond - a departure from the usual award of the prize for a single important discovery.
Throughout the 1950s, Pauling was investigated by government agencies
because of his peace activities, which during this cold war period aroused suspicion. Pauling's right to travel was restricted, and he was not certain he would be allowed a passport to receive the Nobel prize. His passport was not approved until just two weeks before the award ceremony in Stockholm.